Computers – Amity Source http://amitysource.com/ Mon, 21 Nov 2022 16:44:45 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://amitysource.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/07/icon.png Computers – Amity Source http://amitysource.com/ 32 32 UL study finds ‘brain-like’ computing is possible at the molecular level https://amitysource.com/ul-study-finds-brain-like-computing-is-possible-at-the-molecular-level/ Mon, 21 Nov 2022 16:30:29 +0000 https://amitysource.com/ul-study-finds-brain-like-computing-is-possible-at-the-molecular-level/ The UL-led study involved creating a layer of molecules 2 nanometers thick – about 50,000 times thinner than a strand of hair. Researchers at the University of Limerick (UL) have made a breakthrough in physics by discovering that “brain-like” computing activity is possible at the atomic and molecular scale. An international team led by UL […]]]>

The UL-led study involved creating a layer of molecules 2 nanometers thick – about 50,000 times thinner than a strand of hair.

Researchers at the University of Limerick (UL) have made a breakthrough in physics by discovering that “brain-like” computing activity is possible at the atomic and molecular scale.

An international team led by UL molecular modeling professor Damien Thompson has been able to create a new type of organic material that learns from past behavior – much like the synaptic behavior of our brains.

This discovery of the “dynamic molecular switch” is based on the development of a layer of molecules 2 nanometers thick – which is about 50,000 times thinner than a strand of hair and remembers its history when electrons cross.

Thompson explained that “the switching probability and values ​​of on/off states are continuously changing in the molecular material, providing a disruptive new alternative to conventional silicon-based digital switches that can only be on or off.”

He worked with Christian Nijhuis from the Center for Molecules and Brain-Inspired Nano Systems at the University of Twente in the Netherlands and Enrique del Barco from the University of Central Florida.

“It’s been a great lockdown project, with Chris, Enrique and I pushing each other through zoom meetings and gargantuan threads to bring our teams combined skills in materials modeling, synthesis and characterization to the point where we could demonstrate these new brain properties,” Thompson said of the study.

“The community has long known that silicon technology works completely differently from how our brains work, so we used new types of electronic materials based on soft molecules to emulate brain-like computer networks.”

It was published in the international journal Natural materials today (21 November).

The newly discovered dynamic organic switch displays all the mathematical logic functions needed for deep learning, successfully mimicking Pavlovian “call and response” brain-like synaptic behavior.

Some of the applications of this breakthrough range from sustainable and green chemistry to the development of new organic materials for high-density computing and memory storage in large data centers.

“This is just the beginning,” added Thompson, who is also director of SSPC, the Science Foundation Ireland’s pharmaceuticals research center based at UL.

“We are already busy developing this next generation of smart molecular materials, which enables the development of sustainable alternative technologies to address major energy, environmental and health challenges.”

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AWS adds support for batch processing in its managed EKS Kubernetes solution https://amitysource.com/aws-adds-support-for-batch-processing-in-its-managed-eks-kubernetes-solution/ Fri, 18 Nov 2022 20:27:07 +0000 https://amitysource.com/aws-adds-support-for-batch-processing-in-its-managed-eks-kubernetes-solution/ Primarily relating to programs that can be run with minimal human interaction, batch processing is generally considered an important feature of high performance computing. To meet this need, Amazon Web Services Inc. recently announced that it has integrated AWS Batch and Amazon EKS services with each other to help businesses more easily run batch workloads […]]]>

Primarily relating to programs that can be run with minimal human interaction, batch processing is generally considered an important feature of high performance computing.

To meet this need, Amazon Web Services Inc. recently announced that it has integrated AWS Batch and Amazon EKS services with each other to help businesses more easily run batch workloads in the cloud.

“We recently announced our batch support for EKS, our managed solution Kubernetes offering at AWS,” said Ian Colle (pictured), general manager of HPC at AWS. “And so batch processing is still a big part HPC workloads.

Colle spoke to industry analysts theCUBE David Nicholson and Paul Gillin at SC22, during an exclusive broadcast on theCUBE, SiliconANGLE Media’s live streaming studio. They discussed the use cases of batch processing and its connection to HPC. (*Disclosure below.)

IT areas ready to take advantage of the update

With batch processing, a computer processes a number of tasks simultaneously as a group, and adding the functionality to EKS is poised to benefit niches such as autonomous vehicle simulations, according to Colle.

“We see a lot of distributed machine learning, autonomous vehicle simulation and traditional HPC workloads leveraging AWS batch processing,” he said.

A trait that adds versatility and cost-effectiveness to an AWS implementation is the ability to dynamically scale computing resources based on a workload’s queue depth. Clients can go from “seemingly nothing” to thousands of nodes, Colle explained.

“While they perform their work, they only pay for the times while they are working,” he said. “And then when the queue depth starts to decrease and the number of pending jobs in the queue begins to fall; then we start to dynamically reduce those resources. So it is extremely powerful.

In terms of the physical location of the K8 workload and batch processing cluster, it’s entirely up to customer preference, according to Colle.

“We have fully-fledged workflows in a single region, so where they could have some of, say, the traditional HPC workflow, in that region as well as the batch, and they save the results to shared storage file system,” he said. “Or you can have customers that have some sort of multi-regional orchestration layer.”

Here’s the full video interview, some of SiliconANGLE and theCUBE’s coverage of the Event SC22:

(*Disclosure: This is an unsponsored editorial segment. However, theCUBE is a paid media partner for SC22. Neither Dell Technologies Inc., the presenting sponsor of theCUBE event coverage, nor other sponsors n have editorial control over the content of theCUBE or SiliconANGLE.)

Photo: SiliconANGLE

Show your support for our mission by joining our Cube Club and our Cube Event community of experts. Join the community that includes Amazon Web Services and Amazon.com CEO Andy Jassy, ​​Dell Technologies Founder and CEO Michael Dell, Intel CEO Pat Gelsinger, and many other luminaries and experts.

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Computer-aided engineering (CAE) market size expected to grow by 5.65 billion, with FEA expected to be the most revenue-generating product segment https://amitysource.com/computer-aided-engineering-cae-market-size-expected-to-grow-by-5-65-billion-with-fea-expected-to-be-the-most-revenue-generating-product-segment/ Wed, 16 Nov 2022 07:36:49 +0000 https://amitysource.com/computer-aided-engineering-cae-market-size-expected-to-grow-by-5-65-billion-with-fea-expected-to-be-the-most-revenue-generating-product-segment/ NEW YORK, November 16, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — The “Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) Market by product (FEA and CFD), end user (automotive, aerospace and defense, electrical and electronics, and others) and geography (Europe, North AmericaACPA, South Americaand Middle East and Africa) – The “Forecast and Analysis 2022-2026” report has been added to Technavio’s offering. With ISO […]]]>

NEW YORK, November 16, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — The “Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) Market by product (FEA and CFD), end user (automotive, aerospace and defense, electrical and electronics, and others) and geography (Europe, North AmericaACPA, South Americaand Middle East and Africa) – The “Forecast and Analysis 2022-2026” report has been added to Technavio’s offering. With ISO 9001:2015 certification, Technavio has proudly partnered with over 100 Fortune 500 companies for over 16 years. The difference in potential growth for Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) Market size between 2021 and 2026 is $5.65 billion. To get the exact annual growth variance and annual growth rate, Request a FREE sample PDF report.

Technavio has announced its latest market research report titled Global Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) Market

Market segmentation

The AEF will be a significant contributor to the growth of the market over the forecast period. High investments in R&D will be the main factor contributing to the growth of the global FEA market during the forecast period. FEA software helps reduce product warranty and return costs. This also minimizes product warranty and return costs. R&D investments are used to purchase new technologies, hardware, software and services for the development of new and innovative products. Companies in key regions invest heavily in R&D to develop new innovative equipment and to comply with standards set by regulatory bodies or governments in different countries. During the forecast period, the market will be driven by the availability of cloud-based FEA solutions which are cost-effective for end users. The adoption of cloud-based FEA solutions will increase among end users in key regions during the forecast period owing to their advantages, such as flexibility and scalability.

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APAC will be the leading region with 41% of the market growth during the forecast period. The United States is the key country for the computer aided engineering (CAE) market in APAC.

View our FREE Sample PDF Report for additional information on the contribution of all segments and regional opportunities in the report.

Some companies mentioned with their offers

  • Altair Engineering Inc. – The company offers computer-aided engineering capable of transforming data from very large files into formats for further analysis and visualization.

  • ANSYS Inc. – The company offers computer-aided engineering that includes 3D designs, acoustic simulation and safety analysis

  • Dassault Systemes SE – The company offers computer-aided engineering that provides companies with virtual universes to imagine sustainable innovations.

  • ESI Group SA – The company offers computer-aided engineering that provides virtual replication of product development, testing and manufacturing with simulations.

  • Hexagon AB – The company offers computer-aided engineering that allows analysts to simulate product and process performance in finite element analysis, computational fluid dynamics, and multi-body dynamics, as well as tools for cost estimation and design optimization.

  • Autodesk Inc.

  • Bentley Systems Inc.

  • Cambashi Ltd.

  • Ceetron AS

  • COMSOL AB

  • NUMECA International

  • PTC Inc.

  • Siemens AG

  • Simeric Inc.

  • Symscape

This report provides a comprehensive list of major vendors, their strategies, and the latest developments. Buy now for detailed supplier information

Key market dynamics

The growth of the smartphone industry and the increasing demands for large-scale project management are some of the major market drivers. However, factors such as lack of awareness among end users about CFD developments will challenge the growth of the market.

Do you want your report to be personalized? Talk to an analyst and customize your report according to your needs

Related Reports

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Scope of the Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) Market

Report cover

Details

Page number

120

Year of reference

2021

Forecast period

2022-2026

Growth momentum and CAGR

Decelerate at a CAGR of 12.65%

Market Growth 2022-2026

$5.65 billion

Market structure

Fragmented

Annual growth (%)

16.14

Regional analysis

Europe, North America, APAC, South America, Middle East and Africa

Successful market contribution

APAC at 41%

Main consumer countries

United States, China, Japan, Germany and France

Competitive landscape

Leading companies, competitive strategies, scope of consumer engagement

Profiled companies

Altair Engineering Inc., ANSYS Inc., Autodesk Inc., Bentley Systems Inc., Cambashi Ltd., Ceetron AS, COMSOL AB, Dassault Systemes SE, ESI Group SA, Hexagon AB, NUMECA International, PTC Inc., Siemens AG, Simerics Inc., and Symscape

Market dynamics

Parent market analysis, market growth drivers and barriers, analysis of fast and slow growing segments, impact of COVID-19 and future consumer dynamics, and analysis of market conditions for the forecast period.

Personalization area

If our report does not include the data you are looking for, you can contact our analysts and customize the segments.

Browse Computer science Market reports

Main topics covered

1. Summary

2 Market landscape

3 Market sizing

4 Five forces analysis

5 Market Segmentation by Product

6 Market Segmentation by End User

7 Customer Landscape

8 Geographic landscape

9 drivers, challenges and trends

10 Supplier Landscape

11 Vendor Analysis

12 Appendix

About Us

Technavio is a global leader in technology research and consulting. Their research and analysis focuses on emerging market trends and provides actionable insights to help companies identify market opportunities and develop effective strategies to optimize their market positions.

With over 500 specialist analysts, Technavio’s reporting library consists of over 17,000 reports and counts, spanning 800 technologies, spanning 50 countries. Their customer base consists of enterprises of all sizes, including more than 100 Fortune 500 companies. This growing customer base relies on Technavio’s comprehensive coverage, in-depth research, and actionable market intelligence to identify opportunities in existing markets and potentials and assess their competitive positions in changing market scenarios.

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Global Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) Market

Global Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) Market

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This Long-Lost 1950s Computer Is the Subject of a 40-Year-Old Copypasta – Review Geek https://amitysource.com/this-long-lost-1950s-computer-is-the-subject-of-a-40-year-old-copypasta-review-geek/ Sun, 13 Nov 2022 18:13:58 +0000 https://amitysource.com/this-long-lost-1950s-computer-is-the-subject-of-a-40-year-old-copypasta-review-geek/ u/c-wizz/Reddit Last week, Reddit user c-wizz posted several photos of what he called “old computersin the vintage computing subreddit. Among the images, several PDP-8/es and a LGP-30. Both models date from the 1950s. However, the LGP-30 stands out for its connection to “Mel’s story.” “Mel’s Story” is a computer programming legend written by Ed Nathan […]]]>
u/c-wizz/Reddit

Last week, Reddit user c-wizz posted several photos of what he called “old computersin the vintage computing subreddit. Among the images, several PDP-8/es and a LGP-30. Both models date from the 1950s. However, the LGP-30 stands out for its connection to “Mel’s story.”

“Mel’s Story” is a computer programming legend written by Ed Nathan and posted on Usenet in 1983. The story details the woes of Mel Kaye, a computer programmer of extraordinary skill. In the story, Kaye does “most of his programming” on an LGP-30. He inadvertently uses the machine to recode a Blackjack program so that he wins, and the human player loses every game. When Nather was asked to correct Kaye’s error, he discovered an infinite loop controlled by self-modifying code. As Kaye says in the tale, “If a program can’t rewrite its own code, what good is it?” The software engineering feat impressed Nather so much that he refused to fix the bug.

“If a program can’t rewrite its own code, what’s the point? »

Nather’s story became so popular among computer programmers in the 80s that it has been republished countless times over the decades and is still there today. Subject of study by programmers and hackers today.

As for the LGP-30 itself, it is also a piece of computing history. It was one of the very first commercially available computers that individuals could buy and use. Only 45 were made, and the retail price of the first personal computer was $47,000 (almost half a million dollars in today’s money). Only a handful of devices are known to exist in computer museums today. So this is a rare gem indeed.

Other notable LGP-30 users include Meteorologist by Edward Lorenz development of the strange attractor, the butterfly effect and chaos theory.

This particular LGP-30 unit is probably not the one referenced in Mel’s Story, but it’s not impossible. However, just finding one in the wild was enough to fire the imagination of users on Reddit – a testament to the lasting impact of Nather’s programming epic.

Source: Ars-Technica

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IGT and URI launch IT scholarship program for women – URI News https://amitysource.com/igt-and-uri-launch-it-scholarship-program-for-women-uri-news/ Thu, 10 Nov 2022 20:16:29 +0000 https://amitysource.com/igt-and-uri-launch-it-scholarship-program-for-women-uri-news/ KINGSTON, RI – November 10, 2022 – With generous support from IGT, the Department of Computer Science and Statistics at the University of Rhode Island is launching a four-year scholarship program aimed at increasing the number of women who specialize in computers. The IGT Scholarships for Women in Computer Science program – a $200,000 investment […]]]>

KINGSTON, RI – November 10, 2022 – With generous support from IGT, the Department of Computer Science and Statistics at the University of Rhode Island is launching a four-year scholarship program aimed at increasing the number of women who specialize in computers.

The IGT Scholarships for Women in Computer Science program – a $200,000 investment by IGT over the next four years – will open with a cohort of 10 women who are currently freshmen at URI. The scholarships provide a total of approximately $20,000 per student over four years and are open to any freshman who identifies as a woman. The deadline for to apply is December 15. Recipients will be announced in January.

“IGT has partnered with URI for decades to provide top-quality internships, and we are excited to expand our support for URI students in this new capacity as we aim to increase the number of female computer science graduates,” said Rachel Barber, Senior Vice President of IGT and Chief Technology Officer of Global Gaming. “As a URI alumnus, I hope this IGT Scholars program will inspire more women to pursue IT-focused careers and allow them to confidently enter a career in technology. “

“We are deeply grateful that IGT has stepped up this investment in our students,” said Jen Riley, dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, which houses the computer science department. “In doing so, they help ensure that they and other companies have a diverse pool of workforce-directed talent that benefits everyone. At the same time, they strengthen our computer science program by helping us recruit and retain excellent students.

Nationally, women have earned about 57% of all bachelor’s degrees and about half of all science and engineering degrees since the late 1990s, but they only make up about 18% of those who graduate. a bachelor’s degree in computer science, according to the National Girls Collaborative Project.

Lisa DiPippo, chair of computer science at URI, sees the same disparity at URI, where the number of female computer science graduates is less than 20%. Over the past decade, the number of women graduating from the program has ranged from 11% to 17%. Seeking to find answers, the department researched programs at other universities and its own, she said.

“One of the things our research found was that women who left IT did not fare any worse than men who stayed in IT,” DiPippo said. “Women didn’t leave because of their grades. They were leaving because they felt they didn’t belong. They felt they wanted to find a major where there were more people like them.

Funding a cohort of 10 women – who will take courses and work together – can strengthen their sense of belonging, she said. This peer network nurtured by the scholarships can extend that sense of community to other women in the program. But also, DiPippo said, professors and IT staff will hold regular meetings and workshops with fellows on several topics, including academics, career coaching and job search skills.

“This scholarship program could be a game-changer,” she said. “IGT has very generously provided money to this cohort of students over the next four years. They set the tone. It is now our hope that we can find more companies that decide they want to do this. But it’s also a game-changer for the women in this cohort, giving them a sense of belonging that the group will provide and the confidence to succeed.

The IGT Scholars program will provide recipients with a $2,500 scholarship in the second semester of their freshman year and $5,000 scholarships over the following three years. In addition, during their second year, scholarship recipients will be able to attend the Grace Hopper Celebrationthe world’s largest gathering of women in technology.

But a big part of the scholarship program, DiPippo said, will be connecting recipients and the University to IGT. Recipients will be able to meet industry mentors from the company, and the program additionally opens up opportunities for internships and a senior capstone project where students can work on industry issues with an IGT engineer.

“IGT is an international company,” she said. “It’s a great introduction to all sorts of different paths students could go with their computer science degree.”

The scholarship program is open to any first-year URI student who identifies as a woman and is majoring in computer science or intends to major in the program. IGT scholars must maintain a cumulative grade point average of 3.0 or higher.

A webinar will be held on November 16 at 5 p.m. for students who are considering applying to learn more about the IGT scholarship program. (Find a link to the stock market webinar Web page.)

About IGT

IGT (NYSE:IGT) is a global leader in gaming. It provides entertaining and responsible gaming experiences for players across all channels and regulated segments, from lotteries and gaming machines to sports and digital betting. Leveraging a wealth of compelling content, substantial investments in innovation, player insights, operational expertise and cutting-edge technology, IGT’s solutions deliver unparalleled gaming experiences. that engage players and drive growth. IGT has a well-established local presence and relationships with governments and regulators in over 100 countries around the world, and creates value by adhering to the highest standards of service, integrity and accountability. IGT has approximately 10,500 employees. For more information, please visit www.igt.com.

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Commerce Issues Guidance on Recent Advanced Computing and Semiconductor Manufacturing Controls for China | Pillsbury – Global Trade Law and Sanctions https://amitysource.com/commerce-issues-guidance-on-recent-advanced-computing-and-semiconductor-manufacturing-controls-for-china-pillsbury-global-trade-law-and-sanctions/ Fri, 04 Nov 2022 22:27:16 +0000 https://amitysource.com/commerce-issues-guidance-on-recent-advanced-computing-and-semiconductor-manufacturing-controls-for-china-pillsbury-global-trade-law-and-sanctions/ On October 28, 2022, the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) released tips on its October 7, 2022 Interim Final Rule (rule) that imposed new export controls on certain advanced computer integrated circuits (ICs), computer products that contain such ICs, and exported semiconductor manufacturing articles to the People’s Republic of China […]]]>

On October 28, 2022, the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) released tips on its October 7, 2022 Interim Final Rule (rule) that imposed new export controls on certain advanced computer integrated circuits (ICs), computer products that contain such ICs, and exported semiconductor manufacturing articles to the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Comments on the rule will be accepted until December 12, 2022. Our previous blog post on the rule can be found here.

The guidance offers several important clarifications, including with respect to the definition of a covered “facility,” the impact of the rule on deemed exports, and the scope of restrictions on “U.S. person activities.” An overview can be found below.

Installation Definition

The guidelines clarified that the term “facility” refers to the building where production of the restricted technology occurs. Subsequent steps, such as assembly, testing, or packaging, are not covered by the rule. The guidelines further clarify that if the same entity owns multiple buildings on the same corporate campus, each building will be considered a separate “facility” for the purposes of the rule. Thus, if production at the restricted technology level takes place at a single facility on a company’s campus, other facilities will not be subject to the same restrictions. However, in practice it is likely to be difficult for suppliers to obtain accurate information about the specific building in which their products will be used.

American person

The guidance addresses the controls of U.S. persons in EAR § 744.6(c)(2) that apply to persons engaged in the following activities:

  1. Permission to Ship, Transmit, or Transfer In-Country (In-Country) of Non-EAR Items Used in the “Development” or “Production” of Integrated Circuits to Manufacturing Facilities in the PRC that manufacture integrated circuits meeting the criteria specified in EAR § 744.6(c)(2)(i)(A)-(C) of the EAR;
  2. Deliver, by shipment, transmission, or in-country transfer, non-EAR items used in the “development” or “production” of integrated circuits to a manufacturing “facility” in the PRC that manufactures circuits devices that meet the criteria specified in EAR § 744.6(c)(2)(i)(A)-(C) of the EAR; Where
  3. Servicing, including servicing, repair, overhaul or refurbishment of non-EAR items used in the “development” or “production” of integrated circuits at a manufacturing “facility” semiconductor company located in the PRC that manufactures integrated circuits meeting the criteria specified in EAR § 744.6(c)(2)(i)(A)–(C) of the EAR.

Guidance Notes US persons must exercise due diligence to ensure that manufacturing facilities do not engage in prohibited activities. Proper due diligence includes “reviewing publicly available information, items’ ability to supply or service, proprietary market data and end-use statements” and adhering to BIS “Know Your Customer” guidelines in EAR § 732, Supp. 3, to determine whether a manufacturing facility in the PRC manufactures integrated circuits that meet any of the criteria set forth in EAR § 744.6(c)(2)(i)(A)-(C).

According to BIS guidance, given the policy objectives of the rule, the US person restrictions in EAR § 744.6(c)(2)(i)-(vi) do not extend to US persons engaged in administrative or clerical activities (for example, arranging shipping or preparing financial documents) without knowledge of a violation. In addition, these restrictions do not apply to persons who implement a decision to approve a shipment, transmission or transfer within the country subject to restrictions, unless it there is evidence of knowledge of a breach by such persons. Finally, the restrictions also do not apply to development or production activities that are not directly related to the supply of specific items or the servicing of specific items for advanced manufacturing facilities in the PRC. It’s unclear how reassuring these guidelines will be for American people working in Chinese companies, but it does at least indicate that the BRI’s intent is not to broadly target American national employees working in China’s semi- drivers.

We note that the controls in EAR § 744.6(c)(2) also apply to other types of activities of US Persons, beyond those discussed above, which are not addressed by the guidelines.

Deemed exports/re-exports

The guidance also aims to clarify the impact of the rule on exports and re-exports of goods.

First, it clarifies that under section 742.6(a)(6)(ii) of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), Regional Stability (RS) controls placed on New and Revised Export Control Classification (ECCN) only not apply to deemed exports/re-exports. However, deemed export restrictions will still apply to Anti-Terrorism (AT) controls. Thus, a license is still required for deemed exports to persons from countries listed under AT control (Iran, North Korea and Syria.).

Second, the guidelines indicate that a foreign person who has lawfully received technology or software source code prior on the date of entry into force of the new ECCN does not need to apply for a new license or authorization since, according to the BIS, they return the knowledge of this technology or this source code. However, the foreign person must seek these approvals to receive any new software or controlled technology, even if these products are classified in the previous ECCN.

encryption

The guidelines also clarified that items that meet the parameters of 5A992 or 5D992 and also meet or exceed the parameters of 3A090 or 4A090, are subject to the licensing requirements of 3A090 or 4A090, in addition to being subject to classification, the license and reporting requirements of Category 5, Part 2. Additionally, except for items specified in EAR § 740.2(a)(9)(i), items that meet or exceed the parameters of 3A090 or 4A090 cannot use ENC license exception.

[View source.]

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The Looming Crypto Crisis Is Coming With Quantum Computing – EEJournal https://amitysource.com/the-looming-crypto-crisis-is-coming-with-quantum-computing-eejournal/ Tue, 01 Nov 2022 13:07:19 +0000 https://amitysource.com/the-looming-crypto-crisis-is-coming-with-quantum-computing-eejournal/ It seems, more and more, that writing about technology is becoming nothing more than covering a long list of ongoing crises. The crisis of the day is the impending breakdown of cryptographic security, thanks to the expected arrival of quantum computers. Today’s cryptography relies heavily on implementations of RSA public key cryptography, which is now […]]]>

It seems, more and more, that writing about technology is becoming nothing more than covering a long list of ongoing crises. The crisis of the day is the impending breakdown of cryptographic security, thanks to the expected arrival of quantum computers. Today’s cryptography relies heavily on implementations of RSA public key cryptography, which is now ubiquitously used for encryption and decryption of data in networking and computing. RSA encryption – named after its first inventors: Rivest, Shamir and Adleman – relies on the difficulty of decrypting encoded data without a key, requiring tedious calculations to factor large numbers if you don’t have the encryption key .

As computers got faster, RSA keys got longer to try to secure data. However, once quantum computers enter the scene, cryptography experts expect RSA-based data security to quickly break down, thanks to Shor’s algorithm, which American mathematician Peter Shor developed. in 1994 specifically for quantum computers, even though they didn’t exist yet. Shor’s algorithm quickly finds the prime factors of a large integer.

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) recognized the impending cryptographic crisis in 2016 and initiated a program to solicit, evaluate, and standardize one or more quantum-resistant public-key cryptographic algorithms. Many candidate algorithms have been submitted to NIST for evaluation and have gone through multiple rounds of evaluation. NIST is not expected to complete the standardization process for quantum-safe cryptography until 2023.

The IBM Quantum-Safe interview

My colleague and principal analyst at TIRIAS Research, Kevin Krewell, recently interviewed two people at IBM Research regarding IBM’s work on quantum cryptography. The two people are Ray Harishankar, an IBM fellow and vice president working on secure quantum cryptography, and John Buselli, executive director of business development. IBM is currently developing a rapidly evolving line of quantum computers, so the company is acutely aware of how these computers will soon make RSA encryption obsolete. Kevin kindly agreed to let me use the interview to shed some light on the current situation regarding quantum cryptography.

Buselli set the scene early in the interview:

“Our general MO [modus operandi] was not to spread sadness and unhappiness and come to [the issue] with the Grim Reaper. There are different views…as to when this might come to fruition. It’s open to healthy debate. You may be following what the NIST says. I think they came out very firmly [in September] and said they expect RSA 2048 to be cracked by 2035, based on their projections. There are other experts and other analysts or industry followers who will say slightly different things. Our point of view is a little different. Yes, we believe that [RSA decryption using quantum computers] will inevitably happen. But what’s important is what you do today to prepare. Crypto management and crypto transition is not a one-time event. It is a continuous, even multi-annual journey.

Harishankar clarified:

“A few more data points to call. NIST has published reports and you also have national security memoranda that call 2035 as the date. The NSA announced [in September] that 2035 is the date they expect things to be in line [with yet-to-be-published quantum-safe cryptography standards]. And then there’s also this World Economic Forum article that Deloitte and the World Economic Forum put out – where they also call 2035 the danger zone. And if you read the NSA papers, they say all web servers and all network devices should be compliant by 2030. But that’s a cascading series of tasks. You can’t expect them all to be ready by 2030. Nobody ever said that wouldn’t happen. And for John’s previous point, you have to be prepared. That’s all we’re trying to say. And while you’re trying to prepare, be aware of a few things.

“The first is that there is a time frame that you have to consider to upgrade everything you need to move to quantum-safe cryptography. Software systems require a lead time of five to seven years. Most software, infrastructure, and security architecture, if any, are sort of organically grown and morphed over time, so they’re hard to change .

“Second, you have to consider the temporal sensitivity of the data. By this I mean that there are regulatory compliance requirements that may require you to retain data for longer periods of time. Why is this important? It’s important because there is this notion of “download now and decrypt later”, which means that [data thieves and other bad actors] don’t know how to decrypt the data today, but it’s ok. The disc is cheap. So they download all they can [through data breaches] today, then cling to this data, betting that they will eventually have the decryption mechanism. Then they will decipher everything [that stored data] and see what nuggets they can find. So people need to worry about it now, and make sure they have an action plan that they can put in place as soon as they are ready, and the standards are announced…

“So given that, NIST in 2016, I believe, started a campaign or a contest to say, ‘look, submit algorithms that can’t be broken by quantum computers [and classical computers]’, because you technically don’t need a quantum computer. All the work we’re talking about happens with conventional computers. [NIST] had several rounds of very rigorous evaluations and tests, and after four rounds of about 80 [algorithms] which were filed on July 5e of this year, they announced four [algorithms] who have passed their fourth round of assessment and have declared that our standards are likely to be based on these [four algorithms]. Three of these four algorithms come from IBM, in collaboration with university partners. »

IBM isn’t just working on the theoretical side of these quantum-safe algorithms. The company’s recently announced z16 CPU, equipped with a Crypto Express 8S Hardware Security Module (HSM), provides quantum security API access to two of NIST’s selected quantum security algorithm candidates – CRYSTALS-Kyber and CRYSTALS-Dilithium – implemented in the on-board HSM. crypto engines. Also, says Buscelli, IBM has been experimenting with these quantum algorithms on some of its tape drives for some time.

Quantum-Safe: Not Just for Data Centers

However, before concluding that quantum cryptography is strictly for data centers, this is not true at all. Devices at the edge – IoT devices – are also vulnerable. Consider this additional information from Harishankar’s portion of the interview:

“…now think of an automobile, which someone once described as an IoT device capable of moving at high speed. Anything that has electronic communication is going to have exposure, and there’s an associated timeframe for you to understand [a quantum-safe strategy]. The quantum security algorithms we created took into account the form factor of the deployment, as the new algorithm cannot consume huge amounts of CPU. [bandwidth]or request additional memory, or request [communications] a bandwidth that cannot be supported by those devices at the edge that have minimal memory and need to operate with low bandwidth.

These quantum security strategies must be tailored to the target device. Harishankar continued:

“My coffee maker tells me when a coffee is ready, but I don’t care if it [communication] break or not. However, I don’t want anyone to use it [device] as a backdoor to access my network. Right?”

Then Buselli elaborated by recalling Target’s cybersecurity breach in 2013. Criminals stole information from approximately 40 million debit and credit card accounts in that breach, and they broke in using the information of identification provided to Target’s CVC service provider. Target said the breach cost the company $202 million, including an $18.5 million settlement in a lawsuit filed by 47 U.S. states and the District of Columbia.

This breach is an example of access gained through an OT (operational technology) billing system that was linked to the company’s computer (information technology) system. Buselli pointed out that you can imagine the same kind of vulnerability for power plants, automobiles, and even the electrical distribution network. Many networks are really just a collection of IoT devices, each of which could be compromised to access a larger network.

Buselli concluded by saying:

“And again, we are very careful not to sow bad luck. We don’t want to lead with that view. But, practically speaking, it takes time to transform. And that’s really our fundamental position. You have to start, don’t you?

So what’s in your quantum security strategy?

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Tips for Beginner Computer Forensics Investigators https://amitysource.com/tips-for-beginner-computer-forensics-investigators/ Fri, 28 Oct 2022 21:42:46 +0000 https://amitysource.com/tips-for-beginner-computer-forensics-investigators/ Many career opportunities are available for those interested in cybersecurity, one being that of computer forensic investigator. A computer forensics investigator examines computers and digital devices involved in cyber crimes. Uncovered evidence may be used in legal proceedings, and investigators are often called upon to testify in criminal and civil hearings. For those interested […]]]>

Many career opportunities are available for those interested in cybersecurity, one being that of computer forensic investigator. A computer forensics investigator examines computers and digital devices involved in cyber crimes. Uncovered evidence may be used in legal proceedings, and investigators are often called upon to testify in criminal and civil hearings.

For those interested in a career in computer forensicsthey can read author and forensic investigator William Oettinger Learn Computer Forensics: Your One-Stop Guide to Researching, Analyzing, Acquiring, and Securing Digital Evidence.

In this interview, Oettinger explains what new examiners should expect when starting out, what certifications he earned before becoming a computer forensics investigator, and more.

Discover a excerpt from chapter 2 of Oettinger’s book, which explains what kind of computer workstation and response kit investigators should invest in to conduct a thorough examination of digital evidence.

Editor’s note: The following interview has been edited for clarity and conciseness.

What prompted you to write Learn computer forensics?

Click here to learn more about


Learn computer forensics.

William Oettinger: Lots of books explain how to do certain elements of computer forensic investigations, but there is nothing for the new examiner starting out. In addition, many textbooks cover the theoretical side. But few cover the practical side, and no one else has covered the whole process.

I wanted to provide a point of reference for those starting out in their careers, such as helping them choose equipment, as well as other hardware and software considerations.

What knowledge or experience should investigators have when starting out in computer forensics? Are there any relevant certifications?

Oettinger: They must be curious about conducting investigations and know how to ask questions while doing so. From there, they need to understand computers and how they communicate.

Even before taking courses in forensics, I took courses in Windows. From there I earned my CompTIA+ Security and Network+ certificates. I also got my MCSE [Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert, since retired] certification to make sure I understand how Windows works and how it stores data to find relevant artifacts for investigation.

What do beginners need to know when starting their career in computer forensics?

Oettinger: It’s easy to get overwhelmed on your first survey, especially if it involves multiple devices. Be sure to identify the hash list and filter out anything known. The hardest part of our job is to identify the user of the devices. Don’t go into a survey assuming the user is someone in particular.

In the book, you wrote that digital evidence is the most volatile evidence. Why is this important for those starting a career as an investigator?

Oettinger: Digital evidence is easily destroyed, especially accidentally. Physical evidence is much easier to handle. For example, with fingerprints, you dust them off and put tape over them, place that tape between Plexiglas and it’s ready to be scanned. Same with blood. These physical objects are not easily destroyed. Some of them may be destroyed during the testing process, but you usually have enough left over to communicate with a third party about it.

The same is not true for digital evidence. You have a container, which can be a hard drive with spinning platters, an SSD or a USB device, and this is how evidence is stored. People still don’t understand how the file system works. They don’t realize how fragile it is and that you can destroy evidence by plugging a USB drive into the PC and causing a static discharge. A zap can ruin your chip and render the device unreadable. I’ve seen this happen a few times to senior officials in the department.

So many things can go wrong so quickly with digital evidence. You need to take special precautions to keep it safe, such as using a clean room. Also be sure to work with a copy of the proof rather than the proof itself. You don’t want to accidentally alter digital evidence, which is very easy to do. For example, just connect a proof to a Windows device and it will start writing information to disk. Use a write blocker to prevent modification of evidence simply by connecting to it.

You need to understand digital evidence and its limitations, then be able to explain to a third party why it is important and how it got there, as well as what you have done to protect the state of digital evidence and ensure that you didn’t. make changes.

What is the most difficult aspect of any computer forensic investigation?

Oettinger: The amount of information you have to sift through to find what’s relevant to your investigation. We’re talking about hard drives larger than 1TB. People are keeping their devices longer because the capacity has increased, and that translates into a lot of information. What makes things even more difficult is if a user has technical knowledge. I’m currently working on a case where the subject is hiding contraband footage in MP3 files. I have to browse and scan each MP3 file to see which ones have been modified. Another difficult aspect is if a device has multiple users. Finding who is responsible is all the more difficult.

What tools or applications are commonly used during an investigation?

Oettinger: I use X-Ways mainly for office exams. I also use Belkasoft Evidence Center X. I just started using Magnet Axiom for device investigations; I was a Magnet user 15 years ago when it had Internet Evidence Finder.

Are computer forensic investigators expected to testify in court?

Oettinger: It depends on who the investigator works for. I focus on the criminal side of things because the civil tends to be messier. At the local, state, and federal levels, the subject often agrees to plead guilty to a certain set of charges and receives a sentence. Nine times out of 10, it’s because the digital evidence is so overwhelming that the government offers a reduced set of charges in exchange for the guilty plea to save time and money.

I also work on military investigations. The military is much more liberal when it comes to charging suspects, so cases go to trial more often than they do compared to state or federal systems.

Any advice for new computer forensics investigators as they prepare to testify?

Oettinger: Be careful when testifying in court and talking to non-technical people. It is easy for them to misinterpret facts, for example, involving unallocated space. Nine times out of 10, they’ll assume a file is in unallocated space because the user did some action that caused it to be placed there. It’s not always accurate. If investigators find a file in unallocated space, the only thing we can tell is that it was on the device at some point, especially if there are no other file system artifacts. to provide more information. If you try to attribute this file to a specific user and you have no other proof beyond the existence of the file, you cannot say that the user in question deleted it. You can’t tell anything beyond the fact that the file is there in unallocated space. It’s a conversation I have regularly with lawyers, judges and juries. I need to explain the concept that not everything has a user initiated action.

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Microsoft releases Arm-based personal computer for developers https://amitysource.com/microsoft-releases-arm-based-personal-computer-for-developers/ Mon, 24 Oct 2022 20:57:16 +0000 https://amitysource.com/microsoft-releases-arm-based-personal-computer-for-developers/ Microsoft Corp. today introduced a new personal computer for developers, the Windows Dev Kit 2023, featuring a processor based on chip designs from Arm Ltd. The machine is designed to provide a platform on which developers can write software for Arm-based systems. In recent years, several hardware manufacturers have introduced Windows computers with Arm-based processors. […]]]>

Microsoft Corp. today introduced a new personal computer for developers, the Windows Dev Kit 2023, featuring a processor based on chip designs from Arm Ltd.

The machine is designed to provide a platform on which developers can write software for Arm-based systems. In recent years, several hardware manufacturers have introduced Windows computers with Arm-based processors. Additionally, the chip design company’s semiconductor blueprints are powering a growing range of cloud instances and data center systems.

The new Windows 2023 SDK includes the Arm-based Snapdragon 8cx Gen 3 system-on-chip from Qualcomm Inc. A system-on-chip is a processor that combines multiple computer modules into a single package.

The Snapdragon 8cx Gen 3 includes a central processing unit which, according to Qualcomm Inc., provides up to 85% better performance than its previous generation silicon. The CPU is integrated with a graphics processing unit described as 60% faster than its predecessor. For businesses, Qualcomm has added a cybersecurity module that helps protect data such as encryption keys from hacking attempts.

The Windows 2023 SDK combines the Snapdragon 8cx Gen 3 chip with 32 gigabytes of memory and 512 gigabytes of high-speed NVME flash storage. According to Microsoft, the machine also includes a neural processing unit optimized to run artificial intelligence software. According to the company, the chip can run certain neural networks up to 90 times faster than a CPU.

“Windows Dev Kit 2023 enables developers to build apps that unleash the power of NPU hardware to accelerate AI/ML workloads delivering AI-enhanced features and experiences without compromising app performance,” wrote the authors. Microsoft executives Pavan Davuluri and Kevin Gallo in a blog post.

The Windows 2023 SDK chassis includes a Mini DisplayPort that can be used to connect it to a display, such as an Ethernet port and five USB ports. The machine also supports Wi-Fi 6, the latest version of the Wi-Fi wireless networking standard. The standard facilitates network connections up to three times faster than previous generation technology.

Windows 2023 SDK users will have access to Arm-compatible versions of Microsoft’s top productivity apps, as well as more than a dozen third-party programs. Additionally, the machine is capable of running several popular software development tools.

The Windows 2023 SDK supports Visual Studio 2022 17.4, a new Arm-optimized version of Microsoft’s popular integrated development environment. Developers use the software to write code and perform a number of related tasks.

According to Microsoft, Visual Studio 2022 17.4 supports widely used C++ and C# programming languages. The software enables the creation of Windows and web applications, as well as cloud services powered by the Node.js application development platform.

Microsoft also makes a version of its .NET framework available on the Windows 2023 SDK. The framework, which is popular in the enterprise, can be used to build software for multiple types of devices, including desktop office and servers. According to Microsoft, the version of .NET that will be available on the Windows 2023 SDK has several new features, including a set of performance improvements.

The Windows 2023 SDK is available today for $599.

Picture: Microsoft

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Computer chips are the #6 ranked US export – but are they really? https://amitysource.com/computer-chips-are-the-6-ranked-us-export-but-are-they-really/ Sat, 22 Oct 2022 09:00:00 +0000 https://amitysource.com/computer-chips-are-the-6-ranked-us-export-but-are-they-really/ Los Angeles International Airport leads the nation in computer chip exports by value this year, … [+] representing 15% of the total $34.4 billion. In tonnage, Cleveland’s Hopkins International Airport ranks first. ustradenumbers.com Computer chips are the No. 6 ranked US export – at first glance anyway. At first glance, it even appears that the […]]]>

Computer chips are the No. 6 ranked US export – at first glance anyway.

At first glance, it even appears that the United States has a trade surplus in computer chips, which were at the center of the supply chain crisis at the height of the pandemic and are now at the center of the crisis. escalation of President Biden. with China. As an import rather than an export, computer chips rank 10th.

Also at first glance, it appears that Mexico is the number one buyer of US computer chips.

But, there is more to the story.

The story gets a little more interesting when you strip out those computer chips that are actually made outside of the US, imported and then exported.

Computer chips no longer rank sixth, there is no longer a trade surplus in computer chips, and Mexico no longer ranks first. China does.

This post is the eighth in a series of articles on the country’s exports.

It follows a similar series I did for the countries that were, at the time, the country’s top 10 trading partners and one for airports, seaports and border crossings which were, at the time, the top 10 “ports” of the country.

The first article in this series focused on a overview of the top 10 exports. The second looked top 10 countries that are markets for US exports and how they differ from our global trading partners, which would include imports.

The third concerned refined petroleum, the first export; followed by a oilwho ranks second; natural gas, which includes LNG and ranks third; the primary commercial jet category, which ranks fourth; and passenger vehiclesat number 5.

The ninth through twelfth articles will cover #7 plasma and vaccines, #8 motor vehicle parts, #9 drugs in pill form, and #10 medical devices.

Back to computer chips.

For the first time, more than half of the value of US computer chip ‘exports’ this year were actually imported – in other words, manufactured outside the US – and then ‘re-exported’, according to the latest. US Census Bureau data. The national average is only 15.33% until August.

While that makes sense from an accounting standpoint, or perhaps from a liability standpoint – the foreign-made computer chips have in fact left the country – the $34.39 billion in “exports” of computer chips this year would drop $17.94 billion to rank not No. 6 but No. 16, with a value between that of soybeans and corn, without these re-exports.

The trade surplus of $5.54 billion would also disappear.

In fact, among more than 1,200 different export categories at the four-digit level of the Harmonized Tariff Code System, computer chips rank first in the highest value of so-called “foreign exports”, as they are call.

Even those not counted as foreign exports would include computer chips that are imported, including into a free zone, then modified or upgraded before being exported. It’s called “domestic exports”, which is what many people would think an export really is.

So where do all these re-exported computer chips and “domestic” computer chips go? Largely Mexico, to supply the automotive sector and other manufactured goods such as refrigerators, computer monitors, cell phones and related equipment, hard drives and televisions.

But take out these “re-exports” and Mexico is no longer No. 1, as mentioned above. That would be China, the country at the center of the feud with President Biden.

Through August, the top five buyers of “domestic” computer chips are China, with $4.38 billion out of a total of $16.45 billion, followed by Taiwan with $2.62 billion, Malaysia with $2.06 billion and South Korea with $1.04 billion. Alas, Mexico is fifth, with $996.88 million.

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